Litterae latinae online dating

Universality of ecclesiastical jurisdiction was a personal prerogative of the Apostles ; their successors, the bishops, enjoyed only a jurisdiction limited to a certain territory: thus Ignatius was Bishop of Antioch, and Polycarp, of Smyrna.

It is impossible to determine what rules were followed at the origin of the Church in limiting the territory over which each bishop exercised his authority.

Since the eleventh century it has been the rule that the establishment of new dioceses is peculiarly a right of the Apostolic See. Peter Damian proclaimed (1059-60) this as a general principle (c. xxii), and the same is affirmed in the well-known "Dictatus" of Gregory VII (1073-1085). The bishops met with in some monasteries of Gaul in the earlier Middle Ages, probably in imitation of Irish conditions, had no administrative functions (see Bellesheim, Gesch. one of those important matters in which the bishop possesses no authority whatever and which the pope reserves exclusively to himself.

This term was soon used in Roman law to designate the territory dependent for its administration upon a city ( civitas ). The converts who lived in the neighbourhood naturally joined with the community of the town for the celebration of the Sacred Mysteries.Thus, in this early period but few dioceses existed in Northern Italy, Gaul, Germany, Britain, and Spain.In the last, however, their number increased rapidly during the third century.In the creation of new dioceses no mention is made of papal authority. We have noticed above that after the eleventh century the sovereign pontiff reserved to himself the creation of dioceses.The Carlovingian kings and their successors, the Western emperors, notably the Ottos (936-1002), sought papal authority for the creation of new dioceses. They were themselves the organizers of the diocese, after their apostolic labours had produced happy results. In the actual discipline, as already stated, all that touches the diocese is a causa major , i.e.

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This name was also given to the administrative subdivision of some provinces ruled by legates ( legati ) under the authority of the governor of the province. It seems certain on the other hand, that, in the East at any rate, by the middle of the third century each Christian community of any importance had become the residence of a bishop and constituted a diocese.

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