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Moving away from arguments about preconditions, Alexander 2002 presents a theory of consolidation based on the strategic choices of political elites.
This article focuses on the institutional, economic, social, and international causes of democratic consolidation as distinct from democratization.Any telling of the Ghanaian success story must, however, also point out some areas of weakness in the system, indicating democracy in the country is still a work in progress.The role of civil society organizations The 2012 elections confirmed the emergence of civil society as a key factor in Ghanaian democratic development.A democracy becomes consolidated—that is, it is expected to endure—when political actors accept the legitimacy of democracy and no actor seeks to act outside democratic institutions for both normative and self-interested reasons.In other words, democracy is consolidated when, to use a common phrase, it is “the only game in town.” This definition of consolidation, based on the attitudinal and behavioral characteristics of political actors, is simultaneously intuitive and problematic.
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Leaders of faith-based and civil society groups employed various peacemaking initiatives, including peace walks, songs, and sermons, to ensure successful elections by encouraging voters and other political actors to play according to the rules of the game.